Michael Eriksson
A Swede in Germany
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Ergonomy for software developers

Most instructions miss the point

I have on many occasions seen information on how to work ergonomically with computers. Typical information includes: Seating arrangements, elbow positions, wrist positions, and that poor monitors should be avoided. What I have over the years found to be the one truly critical component has been constantly ignored: Damage done to fingers due to pressing keys of various kinds—possibly because the advice givers themselves were inproficient or casual users, or tried to apply advice from other areas (e.g. seated work in general).


Similarly, the makers of “ergonomical” keyboards seem to have no clue about the actual typing, but focus just on the wrist position.

Here I will try to give the young software developer (or intensive user of computers in general) a few crucial tips that I wish that I had received in lieu of “sit with your back straight” when I started working seriously with computers. I stress, however, that the more typical ergonomical advice should not be neglected—there is a reason why the advice is given.

The core problem

A proficient and frequent typist can make an enormous number of key strokes over time, many of them sustained presses, many mouse-clicks. To give a rough order estimate: Assume that someone can type at 100 key-strokes per minute (which is not in anyway high) and does so for a grand-total of one hour a day. This amounts to 6000 key-strokes per day. Assume that this (privately and professionally) happens on 300 days a year. We now have 1.8 million key-strokes a year. Assume a a life-time of computer use of 60 years, and we have a grand-total of 108 million key-strokes. For someone truly involved with computers, who spends both most of the work-day and a sizable part of his spare time using keyboard and mouse, this number can be reached in a fraction of the time—some computer games, e.g., necessitate a constant stream of key-presses, while semi-addictively keeping the user going for five hours straight.

Unsurprisingly, in the light of such numbers, many users accumulate problems over the years.

How to alleviate the problem

  1. Avoid sustained presses; in particular, when using a mouse: A sustained press means a prolonged stress with no ability to relax, and it does much more damage than a brief up-and-down—in fact, it does more damage than even a consistent up-and-down for the same time period.

    Beware also that some keys, depending on construction, can have a greater counter-force on the fingers the deeper they are pressed. A sustained press is subject to this maximal force the entire time, while an up-and-down will see a varying force even on the down-stroke (and will, obviously, be much better of on the up-stroke and when moving the fingers to other positions).

    Corollaries: Try to find a set of keyboard short-cuts that avoids a constant stream of Control-, Shift-, and Alt- presses. Avoid tools that require too many sustained presses; in particular, drag-and-drop with a pressed mouse key.

  2. Find a mouse (or other corresponding device) that has very little resistance to key-presses. Beware that a mouse typically has a noticeable higher resistance than a keyboard.

  3. Ditto keyboard. Many notebook keyboards are excellent. A good rule of thumb is that the flatter the keys are, the less resistance they give.


    One problem I had was that most of the equipment provided at universities and my early employers used input devices with much too high a resistance. Fortunately, better devices are available at reasonable prices nowadays.

    Do not accept an unergonomic device provided by an employer, but insist on equipment that does not hurt you.

  4. Try to find ways of replacing mouse presses with keyboard presses.

  5. Do not work for too long periods without a break; in particular, stop at the slightest sign of pain.

  6. Try to type in a relaxed manner. Do not, as I have seen some do, hammer down the keys. Avoid keeping a key pressed down for longer than it needs to pressed (this goes in particular for the likes of Shift).

  7. Make ample use of completion to minimize your typing; if the tools you use do not support completion, find better tools.

  8. Try to find keyboard shortcuts and other means to make common tasks less key intensive.

  9. Try to configure away double-clicks, e.g. in the Windows Explorer. A double click gives less relaxation time and can also unconsciously require more force.

  10. Consider using a different key-mapping or physical keyboard to spread the load more evenly over the fingers or to avoid unnecessary shifting. Consider e.g. a Dvorak keyboardw over a QWERTY keyboardw, or a US-English keyboard over a local one—the latter often have idiotic mappings for the non-alphanumeric keys. (Obviously, this advice is mostly relevant outside of English-speaking countries.)

  11. Try to spread the load further by deliberately varying what hand presses what key. Pressing the function keys with different fingers is typically relatively easy, and only leads to a marginal time loss. Hitting the Esc key with the ring finger is actually easier than using the pinky after a brief training. If a particular key requires a pause to stop and think (which can be the case for a rarely used key even for a fully fluent typist), then deliberately using the “wrong” finger costs little extra time.

  12. Consider doing some minor warm-up before starting work, and possibly a relaxation exercise every now-and-then. (Again the normal ergonomy guides miss the point: They correctly talk of shoulders and similar here, but they typically leave the all important fingers out.)

  13. Avoid spending too much time per day before a computer, e.g. by finding other spare-time interests. Computer games are more fun than girls, I admit, but spending more time with girls will move some stress from the fingers to the ears. Similarly, substitute more finger-friendly games for finger-unfriendly ones, etc.

  14. Spread the work more evenly over the day (or other time unit): One hour of intense stress does more harm than two half-hour periods with a twelve-hour divide; five minutes per hour over twelve hours is even better (but typically unrealistic).

  15. Try to identify and work-around any quirks your keyboard may have. The space key, for instance, is often much harder to press down than other keys; if so, avoid pressing it with any finger but the thumb.

  16. Do not deliberately try to work faster with the input devices. Doing so will typically lead to greater tension, more force used, less relaxation time, and can cause more work through an increased error rate. A relaxed speed will come naturally to those who just pay attention to typing correctly, while otherwise letting the fingers manage themselves.

  17. Avoid additional stresses from non-computer tasks, e.g. prolonged writing by hand.

Re-consider what systems and programs you are using

Many of the above recommendations require some amount of control over the environment. This control is rarely provided my MS-Windows; leaving Linux users with a clear advantage (in addition to being more keyboard than mouse oriented to begin with). If you are not already leaning towards the more powerful environment Linux provides, then here is another reason. Similarly, different tools have different customizability. Vim, my editor of choice, allows to map any functionality of the editor to any one key—or to a series of key-strokes, should this be preferred.

Another complication is that employers often have predetermined systems and applications that must be used. The good news here is that Linux is gaining acceptance. The bad that most modern applications rely either on mouse use or Control- prefixed keyboard short-cuts.

Generally, most organizations will be very stubborn against changes (for various reasons, some legitimate, some not). Lobbying the right people can help, however.

Beware that keyboards are mis-designed

What is the weakest finger on an average person? The left pinky. Which finger has to do the hardest tasks when typing? The left pinky!

It is true that the stronger fingers accumulate more keystrokes when typing (at least when touch-typing English on a QWERTY keyboard); however, look at the keys the pinky has to frequently handle in addition to its assigned letters: Control (a sustained-press key), Shift (a sustained-press key), Caps-lock, and Tab. (A few others are more infrequent.) Notably, these keys often have a greater size and resistance than the typical alphanumeric keys, and (as stated) two of them are sustained-press keys.


The Tab key may seem infrequent to an inproficient Windows user; however, for proficient users and Linux users it plays an important role through tab-completion. In contrast, these have often done away with the Caps-lock key.

For a user of Vim, the situation is worse yet, because now the Esc key is one of the most commonly pressed, by default with the pinky, and the a key also becomes more frequent through its append functionality in the “normal” mode.

Touch-typing is a two-edged sword

On the one hand, touch-typing almost invariably results in a more relaxed and less forceful way of typing, which is good. On the other, touch-typists are generally faster, often much faster, which implies more keystrokes made per time unit—and very often correspondingly more keystrokes overall. While I believe that the overall balance is in favour of touch-typing, the increase in the number of keystrokes will undo much of the gain. (If someone, somehow, manages to avoid this increase, then it is a no-brainer.) Further, if a key is pressed down faster, the maximum downward force can be greater; however, I doubt that this effect will be truly significant considering that the time spent on the keystroke diminishes.


Obviously, this is with regard to the ergonomic issue; looking at productivity and other factors, touch-typing is far superior to even a proficient “hunt-and-peck” and its variations.

Physical training

Many other forms of stress injuries can be combatted by physical training; in particular, growing the muscles involved. Whether this applies here too, is unclear to me; however, it does seem at least somewhat plausible. The hitch is that the fingers themselves contain comparatively little muscle mass, and rely upon muscle groups in the hand and the lower arm. Another complication is that there are few sports and training methods that have a positive effect on finger strength, other than as a minor side-effect.

My own situation

While I am fully capable of working, and typically only feel (minor) pain after having had a few consecutive days of much typing, I am not entirely untroubled. In particular, I do have to do some amount of management, including paying attention to signs of “over-typing”—which can result in my forgoing writing an article for this website at a time when I feel an actual urge to write. As can be imagined, I would rather not have to make such compromises.

Further, this is likely only possible because I have made considerable adaptions to those environments I can control, and pay attention to input device in those I cannot. Had I gone ahead with the equipment and techniques I used in the old millennium, I would have a severe problem by now.

My advice: Start prevention from the go, not when the problems are already present.


Of course, this description of my situation should be seen in the light of my being a very intense user. A casual, surf-one-hour-a-day, write-three-emails-a-week user would not need to manage his hands. As a comparison, a preliminary version of this page contained roughly 11 thousand characters—and was written in the span of roughly two-and-a-half hours (of non-continuous work). The grand-total of key-strokes needed, including Vim commands, corrections of errors, etc., is likely to be higher by, possibly, one or two thousand key-strokes. This is more than many casual users write in several weeks.